Der Umgang mit der globalen Migrations-Krise

Die Debatten über Immigration konzentrieren sich meist auf deren Auswirkungen auf den sozialen Zusammenhalt in den aufnehmenden Ländern. Befürworter einer offeneren Ausländerpolitik argumentieren, dass aufgrund der zunehmenden Überalterung der Bevölkerung und einer abnehmenden Anzahl der Erwerbstätigen eine höhere Zahl von Einwanderern erforderlich sei, um einen hohen Lebensstandard aufrecht zu erhalten. Ihre Gegner betonen die störenden Auswirkungen der Immigration, besonders unter den sozial Schwächsten in Ländern, die unter einer hohen Arbeitslosenquote leiden. Was benötigt wird, ist aber eine tiefergehende und globalere Perspektive, die über beide Standpunkte hinausgeht.

Zwischen 1850 und 1950 stieg die Bevölkerung Europas um 269% von 203 Millionen auf 547 Millionen an, während der Kontinent eine Periode ökonomischer Veränderungen, sozialen Umbruchs und politischen Aufruhrs erlebte. Auswanderung aus Europa war das wichtigste Sicherheitsventil, ohne das der Kontinent dem Druck auf Bevölkerung und Staaten nicht hätte standhalten können.

Während dieser 150 Jahre gab es Massenauswanderungen von Europa nach Lateinamerika, dessen Bevölkerung um 50 Millionen anstieg, nach Nord-Amerika, das eine Bevölkerungszunahme von 75 Millionen verzeichnete und nach Ozeanien, wo die Bevölkerung um 11 Millionen anstieg.

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