Estados Unidos y Europa ante una negociación difícil

LONDRES – Casi dos décadas después de propuesta la idea, la semana pasada Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea acordaron comenzar a negociar un Acuerdo Transatlántico de Comercio e Inversión (ATCI), cuyo lanzamiento (previsto para inicios de 2015) se presentó como un muy necesario “estímulo sin déficit” que ayudará a aumentar un 0,5% anual el PIB conjunto y mejorar el nivel de empleo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

Si bien el objetivo de ambas partes es eliminar todos los aranceles que aún rigen sobre el comercio bilateral, lo que les urge especialmente es reducir la maraña de barreras no arancelarias (formada sobre todo por normas y regulaciones técnicas y sanitarias contrapuestas) que han trabado el desarrollo de la relación económica bilateral. Un refuerzo de la cooperación entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en temas regulatorios también puede ayudarlos a confrontar lo que en opinión del empresariado es una competencia cada vez más desleal por parte de China, tanto en el frente interno como fuera de él.

Pero, ¿estará el ATCI a la altura de las expectativas? Hay un dato elocuente, y es que el Grupo de Trabajo de Alto Nivel de la Unión Europea y Estados Unidos para el Crecimiento y el Empleo, encargado de la tarea de identificar las políticas y medidas que deberían definir las negociaciones, recomendó proceder con más cautela.

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