马来亚和斯里兰卡:种族政治还是种族战争?

斯里兰卡惨烈的恐怖战争-自杀式炸弹袭击的始作俑者-近来有趋于缓和的迹象。但其总统库马拉通加和总理维克勒马哈辛之间激烈的权力斗争和泰米尔猛虎组织间的派系分裂又使该国处于战火重燃的边缘。他们之间的政治斗争最近激化了。矛盾的导火线是总统以其首相政敌在对付泰米尔猛虎叛军的问题上"太软弱"为由罢免了三位部长并接管其职务。现在她已经解散了议会并将新的大选定在今年4月份举行,足足提前了三年。

亲身经历了1947-1960的马来战争,我时常困惑于斯里兰卡的战事为何更难结束。从表面上看,两次战争有许多共同点。在马来亚,华裔反抗英国和马来政权及警察的情况大致可以与泰米尔人在斯里兰卡反抗僧迦罗人相比。与泰米尔猛虎组织一样,马来共产党也被谴责为恐怖分子,但他们引发的伤亡较之斯里兰卡战争双方所施行的大规模屠杀要小得多。

在那个年代,马来西亚紧张的种族关系造成了种族骚乱。在骚乱中,华人和马来人都有伤亡。但这些冲突从未蜕化为在斯里兰卡经常出现的那种彻底的种族屠杀。

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