怎样使用《营商环境报告》?

美国剑桥—在中国和其他政府的压力下,世界银行正在考虑中止《营商环境报告》(Doing Business)。世行要求南非资深内阁部长曼努埃尔(Trevor Manuel)领衔的委员会研究这方面的事宜。

《营商环境报告》是我的哈佛同事施莱弗(Andrei Shleifer)和徳扬科夫(Simeon Djankov)提出的,后者曾是世界银行职员,后来成为保加利亚财政部长。该报告衡量一系列指标,比如注册企业、纳税、跨境贸易、获得贷款、获得建筑执照和执行合同等行为所需要的时间和成本。数据由律师事务所提供,后者填写关于完成这些任务所需满足的法律和行政要求的调查问卷。

该项目来自一个直指国家在监管市场方面所应该扮演的合适角色及其实际动机的争论的焦点的研究问题:监管的存在有助于实现值得追求的社会目标还是纯属攫取租金?长期以来,这一问题把经济学家分为左右两派,其历史可以追溯到芝加哥大学经济学家施蒂格勒(George Stigler)和弗里德曼(Milton Friedman)指出许多(如果不是全部的话)监管的动机是官僚和现有企业的寻租。

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