Lograr que el FMI y el Banco Mundial trabajen para los pobres

Durante mucho tiempo el Banco Mundial ha proclamado su sueño de “un mundo sin pobreza”. De igual manera podría decirse que el Fondo Monetario Internacional quiere “un mundo libre de crisis financieras”. Estos son objetivos cruciales y abrumadores pero son demasiado limitados para el siglo XXI. Para seguir siendo relevantes, las instituciones de Bretton Woods deben adaptarse plenamente a las necesidades de los países emergentes, y pueden iniciar este proceso en las reuniones del FMI y del Banco Mundial que se celebrarán en Washington esta primavera.

Como muchos reconocen ahora, el FMI debería ver más allá del manejo de las crisis financieras y empezar a abordar las conductas económicas no cooperativas –especialmente en el campo monetario. La comunidad internacional resultaría beneficiada si el FMI se convierte en un centro de vigilancia conjunta y diálogo permanente entre los países ricos, los pobres y los emergentes del mundo. Pero para que eso suceda, los dos últimos necesitan una voz más fuerte.

Afortunadamente, tal reforma al fin está en la agenda. En la cumbre del FMI y el Banco Mundial del otoño pasado se aprobó un incremento en las cuotas de votación de las economías emergentes con menor representación: China, México, Corea del Sur y Turquía. En una segunda ronda de ajustes será necesario involucrar a otras economías que van a un ritmo acelerado sin aplastar la voz de los más pobres.

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