La trampa de los tratados sobre derechos humanos

En momentos en que EEUU se prepara para iniciar la guerra contra el terrorismo a las puertas de Saddam Hussein, la administración Bush repetidamente ha llamado la atención sobre las violaciones a los derechos humanos en Irak. Nos dice el Presidente Bush que el régimen iraquí es responsable de torturas y ejecuciones extrajudiciales y que priva al pueblo iraquí de libertades civiles y políticas básicas. Sin embargo, ni una sola vez el Presidente ha sugerido que estos problemas se puedan enfrentar a través del sistema de tratados sobre derechos humanos de la ONU, un sistema que Irak se ha comprometido a obedecer en virtud de los mismos principios de cuya violación que se le acusa.

Tal vez esto se deba a que la administración Bush, que acaba de marginarse del tratado que crea el Tribunal Penal Internacional, en estos momentos preferiría no concentrar la atención en los tratados de la ONU. O quizás se deba a que Irak no es de ningún modo un caso aislado en cuanto al incumplimiento de sus compromisos derivados de los tratados sobre derechos humanos. Sea cual sea la razón, la obvia falta de relevancia del sistema de tratados sobre derechos humanos en los debates actuales es un signo preocupante.

En los cincuenta años que han transcurrido desde la creación de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, la comunidad mundial ha creado cerca de 100 acuerdos universales y regionales en este campo, que cubren temas tan diversos como la discriminación contra la mujer, la tortura impulsada por el estado, y el derecho a la negociación colectiva. Si bien estas iniciativas son claros símbolos del constante compromiso mundial con la protección de los derechos humanos, llama la atención lo poco que se sabe acerca de su verdadera eficacia en cuanto al logro de sus objetivos.

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