Создание рынка для научных исследований

Научные достижения являются главным двигателем экономического прогресса, но, тем не менее, многие государства часто надеются воспользоваться открытиями, сделанными в более развитых в научно-техническом отношении странах. Это самая практичная и эффективная стратегия на ранних стадиях развития. Но для того, чтобы достичь высокого уровня экономического роста, государству необходимо самостоятельно проводить научные исследования.

Каждое правительство старается поощрять научные исследования посредством образования в различных областях науки. Но польза образования как такового здесь ограничена. В конце концов, наука - это одна из форм предпринимательства, требующая сложную организацию ресурсов и работников, предприимчивость и готовность идти на риск за возможность большого вознаграждения.

Обычно рынок стимулирует прогресс предпринимательских начинаний. В условиях существования такого рынка для научных исследований, ученые образовывали бы предприятия, совсем как в бизнесе, лучшие из которых добивались бы успеха, а остальные терпели бы поражение. Проблема заключается в том, что фундаментальные научные исследования - это в большинстве случаев общественное благо, использование которого невозможно ограничить и которое проникает в основу научных ноу-хау самым непредсказуемым образом.

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