Stratégie de succession et réorientation de la politique étrangère saoudienne

LONDRES – Depuis qu'en 1932 le clan des Al Saud a fondé le royaume qui porte leur nom, intrigues et complexités de la politique royale façonnent l'exercice du pouvoir en Arabie saoudite. Mais jamais auparavant les luttes internes n'ont eu des conséquences aussi importantes pour la région et au-delà.

La famille Al Saud, la plus grande famille régnante actuellement, comporte aujourd'hui quelques 22 000 personnes, autrement dit les rivalités en son sein sont féroces. Cette dynamique a été entamée par le fondateur du royaume, Abdel Aziz Al Saud, quand il a voulu assurer une position à la tête du royaume à chacun de ses 43 fils, et elle se prolonge aujourd'hui avec la stratégie mise en œuvre pour la succession du roi Abdallah.

Le rang des princes saoudiens dépend de la tribu de leur mère et de leur alliance avec les autres membres masculins de la famille royale. Dès le début, les luttes pour le pouvoir se déroulaient entre coalitions de fratries, la plus connue étant celle des "Sept Sudeiri", les fils d'Abdel Aziz et de sa femme, Hussa Al Sudeiri. En 1975, après l'assassinat du roi Fayçal par son neveu, la branche Sudeiri est devenue la faction dominante. Fahd, l'aîné des frères Sudeiri, a régné pendant 23 ans, le plus long règne d'un roi saoudien.

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