Trocar para diminuir a pobreza

WASHINGTON, DC – Um princípio de longa data da teoria do comércio internacional é que, a longo prazo, o aumento do comércio correlaciona-se com o crescimento mais rápido do PIB. Mas o desafio - que a minha instituição, o Banco Mundial, está a trabalhar para superar - é garantir que o crescimento impulsionado pelo comércio beneficia os pobres. É por isso que os dirigentes de sete instituições multilaterais, incluindo o Banco Mundial, apoiaram fortemente a pressão para o acordo de facilitação do comércio que foi alcançado no início deste mês, na conferência ministerial da Organização Mundial do Comércio, em Bali.

Não há dúvida de que a incidência da pobreza no mundo atingiu uma descida histórica, com a taxa de pobreza extrema (a parcela da população que vive com menos de 1,25 dólares por dia, em termos de paridade do poder de compra) a cair em 2010 em mais de metade, desde 1990. Mas isso ainda deixa mais de mil milhões de pessoas no mundo a viverem em extrema pobreza. Além disso, o progresso tem sido desigual, com taxas de pobreza a diminuírem muito mais na Ásia Oriental e na América Latina do que na África Subsaariana.

A fim de lidar com este contexto global de mudança, o Banco Mundial lançou um novo objectivo para orientar os seus esforços de redução da pobreza: promoção da prosperidade sustentável e partilhada, através do acompanhamento do crescimento do rendimento dos 40% mais pobres da população de cada país. Na verdade, estamos a repensar a nossa definição de sucesso no desenvolvimento e como damos apoio relacionado com o comércio, nos países em desenvolvimento.

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