Obchod jako cesta z chudoby

WASHINGTON – Už dlouho zastávaná doktrína teorie mezinárodního obchodu říká, že posílení obchodu v dlouhodobém výhledu koreluje s rychlejším růstem HDP. Náročným úkolem – o jehož zvládnutí se Světová banka, jíž jsem součástí, zasazuje – je však zajistit, aby obchodem vyvolaný růst prospíval chudým. Právě proto hlavy sedmi multilaterálních institucí, včetně Světové banky, důrazně podpořily úsilí o prosazení dohody o usnadnění obchodu, jíž bylo dosaženo počátkem měsíce na ministerské konferenci Světové obchodní organizace na Bali.

Ovšemže, celosvětový výskyt chudoby dosáhl historického minima, přičemž míra krajní chudoby (podíl populace žijící za méně než 1,25 dolaru na den, ve smyslu parity kupní síly) byl v roce 2010 o téměř polovinu nižší než v roce 1990. I tak ovšem na světě stále žije víc než miliarda lidí v krajní chudobě. Pokrok byl navíc nevyrovnaný a míry chudoby poklesly mnohem víc ve východní Asii a Latinské Americe než v subsaharské Africe.

Aby se s tímto měnícím se globálním kontextem Světová banka vyrovnala, zavedla nový cíl, jímž se její snahy o potírání chudoby řídí: podporu udržitelné, sdílené prosperity sledováním růstu příjmů nejchudších 40 % populace každé země. Vlastně nově zvažujeme, jak v oblasti rozvoje definovat úspěch a jak rozvojovým zemím zajistit podporu související s obchodem.

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