Облигации диаспоры

ВАШИНГТОН, ОКРУГ КОЛУМБИЯ – Цели повестки дня программы развития после 2015 года не могут быть достигнуты без сильных программ и адекватного финансирования. Официальная помощь развитию составляет приблизительно 130 миллиардов долларов в год; и хотя иностранные прямые инвестиции и портфельные притоки могут помочь бедным экономикам, необходимо найти дополнительные источники финансирования развития.

Одним из недостаточно эксплуатируемых ресурсов является финансирование со стороны диаспор – то есть денежные переводы и сбережения, заработанные гражданами, работающими за границей, которые они отправляют домой семьям и друзьям. Задача состоит в том, чтобы эффективно направлять этот доход.

Во всем мире существует более 230 миллионов международных мигрантов, что больше, чем население пятой по численности страны в мире, Бразилии. По оценкам, 2,6 триллиона долларов США, которые они ежегодно зарабатывают, превышает ВВП Соединенного Королевства, шестой по величине экономике мира. Большая часть этого дохода облагается налогом или тратится в странах, где он получен. Однако, предполагая 20% норму сбережения (близко среднему значению для развивающихся стран), это должно создавать общие годовые сбережения диаспоры в размере более чем 500 миллиардов долларов.

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