Anleihen der Diaspora

WASHINGTON, DC – Die Ziele der Entwicklungsagenda für die Zeit nach 2015 können nicht ohne leistungsstarke Programme und eine angemessene Finanzierung erreicht werden. Die offizielle Entwicklungshilfe beläuft sich auf ungefähr 130 Milliarden US-Dollar pro Jahr. Obwohl armen Volkswirtschaften durch ausländische Direktinvestitionen und Zuflüsse aus Portfolios geholfen werden kann, müssen zusätzliche Finanzierungsquellen für die Entwicklungshilfe gefunden werden.

Eine zu wenig genutzte Ressource ist die Finanzierung aus der Diaspora, damit sind Überweisungen und Ersparnisse gemeint, welche im Ausland arbeitende Staatsangehörige verdienen und an Familien und Freunde nach Hause schicken. Die Herausforderung besteht darin, diese Einnahmen effizient zu lenken.

Weltweit gibt es über 230 Millionen internationale Migranten, das ist mehr als die Bevölkerung von Brasilien, das im Hinblick auf seinen Bevölkerungsreichtum an fünfter Stelle in der Welt steht. Die geschätzten 2,600 Milliarden US-Dollar, die sie jährlich verdienen, übersteigen das BIP des Vereinigten Königreichs, der sechstgrößten Volkswirtschaft der Welt. Ein Großteil dieser Einnahmen wird in den Gastländern versteuert und ausgegeben. Doch wenn man von einer Sparquote von 20 % ausgeht (das entspricht in etwa dem Durchschnitt für Entwicklungsländer), kommt man auf eine jährliche Gesamtersparnis von über 500 Milliarden US-Dollar aus der Diaspora.

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