Misurare la crescita inclusiva

WASHINGTON, DC – Quando l’anno prossimo scadranno gli Obiettivi di sviluppo del Millennio (MDG), il mondo potrà tirare le somme sui diversi risultati importanti ottenuti da quando sono stati lanciati nel 2000. La povertà estrema è stata dimezzata durante questo periodo; si stima che 100 milioni di abitanti delle baraccopoli abbiano ottenuto l’accesso all’acqua potabile e sicura, e milioni di persone all’assistenza sanitaria; e un ampio numero di ragazze ora ricevono un’istruzione. Restano però notevoli questioni irrisolte e significative discrepanze di performance.

L’agenda di sviluppo post-2015 continuerà dove gli MDG non ce l’hanno fatta, aggiungendo altri obiettivi relativi a inclusione, sostenibilità, occupazione, crescita e governance. Il successo dei prossimi Obiettivi di sviluppo sostenibile (SDG) dipenderà da come saranno sviluppati, implementati e misurati i nuovi programmi.

Una forte crescita economica consente alle persone di migliorare la propria vita e a creare spazio per lanciare nuove idee. Ma una crescita di questo genere è spesso accompagnata dal degrado ambientale, che riduce la salute umana e la qualità della vita, minaccia l’approvvigionamento idrico e compromette gli ecosistemi, impedendo la crescita per le future generazioni. Inoltre, la crescita a breve termine che erode il capitale naturale è vulnerabile ai cicli boom-bust (ossia fasi di forte espansione seguite da fasi di forte contrazione) e può causare alle persone che sono a rischio di povertà di scendere ben al di sotto di tale soglia.

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