Mesurer une croissance inclusive

WASHINGTON, DC – Lorsque le cycle des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD) arrivera à son terme l’an prochain, la communauté internationale pourra se féliciter des nombreux progrès accomplis depuis leur lancement en l’an 2000. L’extrême pauvreté a été réduite de moitié durant cette période ; 100 millions environ d’habitants des bidonvilles ont eu accès à l’eau potable et des millions de personnes à des soins de santé ; et une proportion importance de filles bénéficient aujourd’hui d’une éducation. Mais il reste encore beaucoup à faire et des écarts de résultats importants persistent.

Le programme de développement de l’après-2015 s’appuiera sur les OMD, en ajoutant de nouveaux objectifs, tels l’inclusion, la durabilité, l’emploi, la croissance et la gouvernance. Le succès des futurs Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) dépendra de la manière dont les nouveaux programmes sont élaborés, mis en œuvre et mesurés.

Une croissance économique forte permet aux populations d’améliorer leurs conditions de vie et crée des espaces dans lesquels peuvent prospérer de nouvelles idées. Mais cette croissance se traduit souvent par une dégradation de l’environnement, qui porte atteinte à la santé humaine et à la qualité de vie, menace l’approvisionnement en eau et met en péril les écosystèmes, limitant la croissance des générations futures. De plus, une croissance à court terme qui amoindrit le capital naturel est soumise à des cycles d’expansion-récession et ceux qui vivent près du seuil de pauvreté peuvent chuter bien en dessous de ce seuil.

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