magna carta T_Marjorie/Flickr

Magna Carta slaví 800 let

PRINCETON – Až někam poletíte z londýnského letiště Heathrow, možná minete zatravněné pole s názvem Runnymede. Tento měsíc tomu bude osm set let, co toto pole nabídlo pestrobarevnou podívanou: bylo poseté stany baronů a rytířů, ale své přístřeší tu měl i anglický král Jan. Jeho stan byl o něco větší a vypadal jako cirkusové šapitó, nad nímž se třepetala královská zástava.

Navzdory okázalému vzhledu tohoto shromáždění v něm musela vládnout napjatá atmosféra. Cílem setkání bylo urovnat konflikt mezi vzbouřenými barony a jejich králem – panovníkem, kterého jeden současník popsal slovy „přetékající špatnými vlastnostmi“.

Janova snaha získat peníze na opětovné dobytí ztracených držav ve Francii vedlo k překročení obvyklé míry daní a poplatků, kterou šlechta přijala od jeho předchůdců. Král se zmocňoval majetku zámožných pánů a obchodníků a někdy i jich samotných a za jejich vydání požadoval tučné platby.

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