Fait en Chine refaite

SHANGHAI – « Ce business est mort » déclare un patron d’une usine de vêtements rencontré à  Zhuhai, une ville située dans la province de Guangdong. Comme beaucoup dans ce secteur, il remballe. Les investisseurs s’étaient précipités à Zhuhai il y a vingt ans attirés par les bas salaires. Disparus, il semble, les beaux jours des t-shirts, des jouets, des fleurs en plastique, des tuiles, crochets et autres ressorts. Aujourd’hui, les coûs de fabrication de telles pièces sont moins élevés dans des pays comme le Bengladesh ou le Vietnam que dans la province de Guangdong.

Dans la mesure où les coûts du travail continuent d’augmenter, la Chine serait-elle en train de perdre sa place tant enviée d’atelier du monde ?

L’augmentation des coûts du travail est inévitable. Le gouvernement de la Chine a mis en place des lois du travail sévères et un salaire minimum en 2008. Les politiques récentes visant à améliorer les conditions économiques rurales ont ralenti le flot de migrants vers les villes. Les travailleurs exigent des compensations plus élevées équivalentes au coût de la vie en augmentation constante dans les zones urbaines chinoises, comme le démontre une grève médiatisée débutée dans une usine Honda basée à Guangdong. Les revendications concernaient principalement les salaires.

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