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La maniobra laboral de Macron

CAMBRIDGE – A finales de agosto, el presidente francés, Emmanuel Macron, dio a conocer la reforma del mercado laboral que puede llevar a su presidencia al éxito o al fracaso – y es muy posible que pueda determinar el futuro de la eurozona. Su objetivo es derribar la porfiada tasa de desempleo de Francia para que se establezca un poco por debajo del 10%, y energizar  una economía que necesita urgentemente un fuerte puntapié inicial.

La reforma laboral ha estado por largo tiempo en la agenda de Francia. Prácticamente cada uno de los gobiernos franceses en tiempos recientes ha tratado de reescribir el gigantesco código laboral del país; pero, han fracasado en su mayoría en sus intentos debido a las confrontaciones con las protestas sindicales. Macron no anda con rodeos acerca de lo que está enfrentando: lo ha descrito como una revolución copernicana. Sin embargo, esta vez puede que los resultados sean distintos. A pesar de que el segundo sindicato más grande del país ha convocado una huelga general, hay indicios de que Macron tendrá el apoyo político que necesita.

Las reformas de Macron pretenden aumentar lo que se llama eufemísticamente la flexibilidad del mercado laboral. Las reformas propuestas facilitarían a las empresas el despido de los trabajadores, descentralizarían las negociaciones entre empleadores y trabajadores de las pequeñas empresas (eliminando los acuerdos sectoriales) e introducirían un límite máximo a la indemnización por despido injustificado, lo que aliviaría la imprevisibilidad de los daños y perjuicios asignados mediante procesos de arbitraje. Además, las reformas eliminan un requisito que vincula los despidos masivos en grandes empresas a la rentabilidad global de dichas empresas; después de las reformas las empresas podrán despedir a los trabajadores únicamente sobre la base de rentabilidad interna.

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