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Kebijakan Pasar Tenaga Kerja Macron

CAMBRIDGE – Pada akhir bulan Agustus, Presiden Perancis Emmanuel Macron memaparkan program perombakan pasar tenaga kerja yang akan menentukan nasib kepresidenannya – dan mungkin juga akan menentukan masa depan zona Euro. Tujuan dari program ini adalah untuk menurunkan tingkat pengangguran di Perancis, yang selama ini sangat sulit turun, hingga dibawah angka 10% dan merevitalisasi kembali perekonomian.

Reformasi tenaga kerja telah lama menjadi agenda Perancis. Semua pemerintahan Perancis selama beberapa dekade terakhir telah berupaya untuk merevisi peraturan ketenaga-kerjaan negara tersebut yang selama ini sangat ketat, yang seringkali mengalami kegagalan karena protes dari serikat pekerja. Macron sangat menyadari tantangan yang dia hadapi: dia telah menggambarkan upaya ini seperti revolusi Copernicus. Namun sepertinya upaya kali ini akan berbeda. Meskipun serikat buruh terbesar kedua di Perancis telah menyerukan mogok masal, ada tanda-tanda yang menunjukkan bahwa Macron akan mendapatkan dukungan politik yang ia butuhkan.     

Reformasi yang dilakukan Macron bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hal yang sering disebut sebagai fleksibilitas pasar tenaga kerja. Reformasi yang diusulkan ini akan mempermudah perusahaan-perusahaan dalam memberhentikan pekerjanya, mendesentralisasikan posisi tawar antara perusahaan dan pekerja di perusahaan kecil (dengan menghapuskan kesepakatan tingkat sektoral), dan memberlakukan plafon atas ganti rugi atas pemecatan yang tidak sesuai peraturan, sehingga memberikan kepastian pada perusahaan atas ketidakpastian ganti rugi yang harus diberikan melalui proses arbitrase. Terlebih lagi, reformasi ini juga menghilangkan persyaratan untuk menghubungkan pemecatan masal di perusahaan-perusahaan besar dengan profitabilitas global dari perusahaan tersebut; oleh karena itu, perusahaan dapat memecat pekerja semata-mata berdasarkan perhitungan profitabilitas dalam negeri.

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