french labor code Loic Venance/Getty Images

Los dos pilares de la reforma económica francesa

PARÍS – El gobierno francés acaba de anunciar los lineamientos para un nuevo código laboral, su principal reforma de relevancia para impulsar la economía de Francia, dándole una mayor flexibilidad a las empresas para adaptarse al mercado. La segunda reforma importante que quiere implementar el gabinete del presidente Emmanuel Macron -una reestructuración del estado francés- es lo que vendrá a continuación.

Los cambios en el código laboral tienen cuatro objetivos. Primero, las negociaciones directas entre empleadores y empleados en pequeñas y medianas empresas (que representan el 55% de la fuerza laboral) se verían facilitadas al permitirles a esas empresas negociar con representantes elegidos y no designados por los sindicatos. Segundo, se simplificaría el diálogo social al interior de empresas al fusionar los diferentes comités de trabajadores (para higiene, salud, seguridad y demás) en un organismo central. Tercero, se descentralizaría la negociación colectiva sobre salarios y empleo: pasaría del nivel nacional a un nivel sectorial y/o empresarial. Finalmente, el despido de los empleados se tornaría más fácil y más predecible, en particular con la introducción de niveles superiores e inferiores en las retribuciones sancionadas por los tribunales laborales.

La reforma del código laboral pronto estará acompaña por reformas del seguro de desempleo y de los sistemas de capacitación laboral. En el primer caso, el gobierno asumirá el control de manos de los sindicatos, para ofrecer beneficios de desempleo a todas las categorías de trabajadores, inclusive los autónomos y aquellos que voluntariamente abandonan su empleo actual para buscar uno nuevo. Sin embargo, se calcula que el costo de reformar el seguro de desempleo es de 3.000-5.000 millones de euros (3.600-6.000 millones de dólares), lo que puede resultar difícil de cuadrar con los planes presupuestarios de 2018, que prevén un recorte de 20.000 millones de euros en el gasto.

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