French Prime Minister Edouard Philippe speaks with pupils as he visits the Jean Perrin secondary school  ERIC FEFERBERG/AFP/Getty Images

马克龙的教育革命

巴黎—在取消了财富税并对资本利得征收统一税后,法国总统马克龙的反对者别有用心地把他和美国总统特朗普作比较。去年12月,特朗普为美国富豪大幅减税。而马克龙的一些最死硬的批评者甚至把他称为“富人的总统”。

大错特错。从全面的角度看,马克龙的改革日程提供了很有希望的新方针来解决法国的不平等性和社会流动性下降问题。而美国和法国在这些问题上无论如何都无法相提并论。法国收入不平等性在1990年后有所加剧,但仍比其他发达国家低很多。

具体而言,收入分配最顶端的10%和最底端的10%的差距,美国比法国高五倍(见图)。此外,法国的贫困率为13.6%,比瑞典(14.5%)和德国(16.7%)都要低。而所有这三个欧洲国家的贫困率又都要远低于美国。

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