国家有权说谎?

哈罗德·詹姆斯

普林斯顿——什么时候可以说谎?说谎有时候是种美德?马基雅维利的传统认为,说谎有时是正当的,其理由,要么是“符合政治之道的更高需要”,要么是“国家代表更高层次的道德原则”,因为它“体现了公共的善”。那一传统如今再次成为焦点,因为近期的许多辩论又谈到了出于政治目的而隐瞒真相的问题。

德国国防部长古滕贝格(Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg)是必须承认自己的博士论文里存在大量抄袭呢,还是由于他当时正担任重要的政府职务,可以允许撒一个谎?既然误判了是否存在大规模杀伤性武器,那么2003年美国领导盟军入侵萨达姆·侯赛因执政的伊拉克,是不是成了非法的?为了搞臭政治对手,美国反堕胎保守势力派人到“有规划生育”机构(Planned Parenthood),用编造的故事蒙人,这种行为又正当不正当呢?

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