Machiavel dans la zone euro

PRINCETON – Nicolas Machiavel est à la mode. Plus de 500 ans après avoir écrit son célèbre traité Le Prince, Machiavel est à nouveau l'un des penseurs politiques les plus populaires en Europe. Son livre est l'un des premiers « guides pratiques » de politique, qui contient indubitablement quelques conseils précieux pour les décideurs économiques, dans une période qui les oblige à relever des défis extrêmement déroutants.

Les autorités monétaires se sont tournées vers Machiavel pour comprendre l'approche politique du président de la Banque Centrale Européenne Mario Draghi. Le nouveau ministre français de l'économie Emmanuel Macron, utilise probablement les idées de Machiavel (l'auteur sur lequel il a soutenu son mémoire de master), pour façonner le plan de modernisation de l'économie de son pays. Niccolo M., un think tank influent à Moscou, conseille le Kremlin sur la politique, sur les technologies de communication militaires offensives et sur la guerre hybride.

Mais Machiavel est mal compris. Le chapitre le plus célèbre du Prince, le Chapitre XVIII qui explique les circonstances dans lesquelles il est permis et même souhaitable que les dirigeants ne tiennent pas leurs promesses, semble soutenir que les dirigeants les plus accomplis se soucient « peu tenir leurs promesses » et savent « comment manipuler habilement les esprits. » Le chapitre a été largement interprété comme voulant dire que les dirigeants doivent mentir aussi souvent que possible.

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