مكيافيلي في أرض اليورو

برينستون ــ يبدو أن نيكولو مكيافيلي تحول إلى اتجاه شائع، فبعد مرور أكثر من خمسة قرون منذ كَتَب أطروحته (الأمير)، عاد مكيافيلي إلى الظهور باعتباره واحداً من أكثر المفكرين السياسيين شعبية في أوروبا. والواقع أن كتابه ــ وهو واحد من أوائل الأعمال التوجيهية في عالم السياسة ــ يقدم بعض النصائح الجديدة لصناع السياسات الاقتصادية كلما واجهوا تحديات مبركة إلى حد غير عادي.

فقد لجأت السلطات النقدية إلى مكيافيلي ليساعدها في فهم النهج السياسي الذي يتبناه رئيس البنك المركزي الأوروبي ماريو دراجي. وربما يستخدم وزير الاقتصاد الفرنسي الجديد إيمانويل ماكرون أفكار مكيافيلي ــ والتي بنى عليها أطروحته لرسالة الماجستير ــ للمساعدة في صياغة خطته لتحديث اقتصاد بلاده. ويوجه مركز بحثي مهم في موسكو يسمى (نيكولو م.) النصيحة إلى الكرملين بشأن سياسات مثل تكنولوجيا الاتصالات العسكرية الهجومية والحرب الهجين.

لكن مكيافيلي لم يُفهَم كما ينبغي. فيبدو أن الفصل الأكثر شهرة والأسوأ سمعة في كتاب الأمير، وهو الفصل الثامن عشر الذي يشرح الظروف التي في ظلها يصبح من الجائز ــ بل وحتى المرغوب ــ أن يكسر الحكام وعودهم، يزعم أن الحكام الأكثر نجاحاً "لا يهتمون كثيراً بمسألة التمسك بالإيمان" ويعرفون "كيف يمكرون في التلاعب بعقول الرجال". وكان التفسير الأوسع نطاقاً لهذا الفصل يفيد أن القادة لابد لهم أن يكذبوا كلما أمكنهم ذلك.

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