Paul Lachine

A tropezones con el trabajo

LONDRES - Mientras el mundo se recupera de la Gran Recesión, se ha vuelto cada vez más difícil discernir la verdadera tendencia de los acontecimientos. Por un lado, medimos la recuperación según nuestro éxito en volver a los niveles de crecimiento, producción y empleo previos a la recesión. Por otro lado, existe la inquietante sensación de que la "nueva normalidad" de hoy puede ser un crecimiento más lento y mayores niveles de desempleo.

Así que el reto ahora es formular políticas para dar trabajo a todos quienes lo deseen en las economías que, tal como estás organizadas en la actualidad, pueden no ser capaces de hacerlo. Este problema es mucho más agudo en los países desarrollados que en los países en desarrollo, si bien la interdependencia hace que, en cierta medida, se trate de un problema común.

El problema tiene dos aspectos. A medida que los países se vuelven más prósperos, cabe esperar que sus tasas de crecimiento sean más lentas. En épocas anteriores, el crecimiento era impulsado por la escasez de capital: la inversión de capital atraía una alta tasa de retorno, y esto creaba un círculo virtuoso de ahorro e inversión.

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