Paul Lachine

العمالة المتكتلة

لندن ـ بينما يتعافى العالم من أزمة الركود الأعظم، بات من الصعب على نحو متزايد أن نتبين الاتجاه الحقيقي للأحداث. فنحن من ناحية نقيس التعافي استناداً إلى نجاحنا في العودة إلى مستويات النمو والناتج وتشغيل العمالة في مرحلة ما قبل الركود. ومن ناحية أخرى، هناك شعور مقلق ومربك بأن "الوضع الطبيعي الجديد" اليوم قد يكون النمو البطيء وارتفاع مستويات البطالة.

لذا فإن التحدي الآن يتمثل في صياغة السياسات القادرة على توفير فرص العمل لكل الراغبين في العمل في ظل اقتصاد قد لا يكون قادراً على توفيرها بتنظيمه الحالي. وتزداد حدة هذه المشكلة في البلدان المتقدمة مقارنة بالبلدان النامية، ولو أن الاعتماد المتبادل يجعلها مشكلة مشتركة إلى حد ما.

وهناك جانبان لهذه المشكلة. فمع تزايد ازدهار البلدان، يتوقع المرء أن تتباطأ معدلات النمو لديها. ففي أوقات سابقة، كان النمو يتغذى على ندرة رأس المال: إذ كانت الاستثمار الرأسمالي يجتذب معدل مرتفع من العائد، ولقد أدى هذا إلى خلق حلقة حميدة من الادخار والاستثمار.

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