¿Pequeños países con suerte?

AMSTERDAM – En su conjunto, las democracias pequeñas de Europa Occidental han sido excepcionalmente afortunadas. Más libres y ricos que cualquier otro lugar del mundo, países como Holanda, Bélgica y Suiza parecerían tener poco de qué preocuparse. Por eso normalmente el mundo escucha menos de ellas que de Afganistán o, digamos, Kosovo. Sin embargo, los tres han tenido presencia en los medios últimamente, y no por razones felices.

Hoy la fuerza política más exitosa de Suiza es el Partido del Pueblo Suizo, de Christoph Blocher. El material de propaganda del partido lo dice todo. Un cartel muestra tres ovejas blancas expulsando una oveja negra de la bandera suiza. E imágenes de drogadictos y mujeres musulmanas con pañuelos en la cabeza se contrastan en una película promocional con escenas idílicas de los Alpes y bancos que funcionan con eficiencia: la Suiza del Partido del Pueblo.

Vlaams Belang, el partido nacionalista flamenco, puede no ser el mayor partido de Bélgica, pero ha tenido buenos resultados en las elecciones locales. Al igual que el Partido del Pueblo Suizo, Vlaams Belang se alimenta del resentimiento popular hacia los inmigrantes -especialmente los musulmanes- de la Unión Europea y, por supuesto, hacia los valones de habla francesa, de quienes los nacionalistas flamencos quisieran un divorcio. Este último sentimiento está convirtiéndose en una verdadera amenaza a la supervivencia de Bélgica.

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