Poor neighborhood children playing Oli Scarff/Getty Images

Nízká cena za ukončení chudoby

CHICAGO – Chudoba je nejkrutější neštěstí lidstva. Žijete-li v krajní chudobě, nemůžete si dovolit vyhnout se ani nejsnáze léčitelným chorobám, které jsou příčinou každého šestého lidského úmrtí. Plíce máte nejspíš zanesené nečistotami ze vzduchu v interiérech, neboť tak jako 2,7 miliardy dalších lidí vaříte a ohříváte se pomocí paliv, jako je trus a dřevo – a důsledky jsou stejné jako vykouřit dvě krabičky cigaret denně. Nedostatečná výživa vede u vašich dětí k růstovému zakrnění a postihuje jejich kognitivní vývoj, což je v průměru stojí 4-8 bodů v IQ. Taková deprivace vyvolává hluboký stres a beznaděj, takže je těžké jednat způsoby, které vám zlepší život.

Samozřejmě, svět v boji proti chudobě dosáhl velkého pokroku. V roce 1820 žilo v krajní chudobě devět z deseti lidí. Světová banka odhaduje, že míra celosvětové chudoby poprvé v lidských dějinách klesla na jednociferná čísla v roce 2015. Dnes za méně než 1,90 dolaru na den (což odpovídá jednomu dolaru v roce 1985) žije 9,1 % světové populace čili téměř 700 milionů lidí.

Tato hranice krajní chudoby ve výši 1,90 dolaru je skutečně přísná: nejedná se o to, co si movitý turista může koupit v rozvojové zemi s nízkými cenami. Znamená, co si Američan může za 1,90 dolaru koupit ve Spojených státech. V lokální měně se výše koriguje na ekvivalent kupní síly.

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