应对大规模灾难的当地科学

地球上不停地发生着灾难。其中有些是长期存在的,比如艾滋病;而其它则是自然力量的瞬间迸发,像地震或卡特里娜飓风。每逢灾难发生,人们都期待富裕地区资金实力雄厚的救援组织会迅速采取行动。但外来援助不仅降低了效率,实际还可能造成更为严重的长期破坏。

海啸袭来时,人们首先要请第一世界专家参与救灾。救援行动是重中之重,其次是确保食品、庇护所和药品的供应。整个过程都遵循特定的程序,而且要确保效率的最大化,因此救援行动常会遵循捐赠国在制度上的理念。

但重建时将一种文化习惯强行移植到另一种文化背景可能会导致社会变化,而这些变化就像灾难本身一样具有破坏性。20世纪70年代末发生在菲律宾一个小渔村的故事就是最好的证明。

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