在火山口上生活

我写这篇文章时,在巴黎市郊和法国其它城市发生的民众与警察的暴力冲突已经持续近两周了。这次冲突中,仅每晚被焚烧的汽车就达到近1,000辆。引发冲突的原因是什么?这样的混乱究竟要持续到什么时候?

这个社会里,有成千上万的年轻人既无收入也无根基。他们无所事事,只知道用暴力来要求社会对他们的承认,这样的问题不仅仅出现在法国。人人都记得20世纪60年代发生在美国的华特暴动、纽华克暴动和底特律暴动,以及20世纪80年代初发生在英国的利物浦暴动,还有近年来发生的布拉德福、奥海姆和伯恩利暴动。同样,20年前法国里昂附近也发生过沃昂夫兰暴动。因此,分清哪些问题是发达国家所共有的、哪些是法国所独有的就显得非常重要。

过去30年来,所有的发达国家都发生了影响深远的变化。我们从以管理层为核心的资本主义过渡到以股东制为核心的资本主义,从经济在很大程度上由国家控制过渡到逐步解除对市场的管制,从20世纪60、70年代广泛实行积极的社会政策过渡到目前的不断缩减社会开支。

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