Schwache starke Männer

CAMBRIDGE – Die Geschichte ist über weite Strecken eine Geschichte der Kriegshelden, aber das enorme Potenzial menschlicher Führungskraft reicht von Attila dem Hunnenkönig bis zu Mutter Theresa. Die meisten Führer des Alltags bleiben unerwähnt. Die Rolle heldenhafter Führung in Kriegszeiten führt zu einer Überbetonung von Befehl, Kontrolle und harter militärischer Macht. In Amerika spielt sich die derzeitige Präsidentschaftsdebatte zwischen Senator John McCain, einem Kriegshelden, und Senator Barack Obama, einem ehemaligen Gemeinwesenarbeiter, ab.

Das Bild des Kriegsführers besteht bis heute. Der Autor Robert Kaplan verweist auf die Entstehung einer neuen „Kriegerklasse, grausam wie eh und je und besser bewaffnet”, zu der russische Mafiosi und lateinamerikanische Drogenbosse ebenso gehören wie Terroristen, die Gewalt verherrlichen wie einst die alten Griechen bei der Zerstörung Trojas. Kaplan argumentiert, dass moderne Führer auf gleicher Ebene reagieren müssen und dass moderne Führerschaft ein in der Vergangenheit verankertes heidnisches Ethos braucht.

Clevere Krieger wissen aber, wie man mit mehr als nur dem Einsatz von Gewalt führt. Soldaten scherzen manchmal, dass ihr Aufgabenbereich leicht zu beschreiben ist: „Menschen töten und Dinge zerstören“.  Aber wie die Vereinigten Staaten im Irak herausfanden, kommt es auch auf die Herzen und den Verstand an und kluge Krieger benötigen die weiche Macht der Attraktivität ebenso wie die harte Macht des Zwanges.

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