平民领袖

        剑桥-历史通常是根据军事英雄写成的,但是众多可能的人类领袖包含了从匈奴可汗到特丽莎修女这样的人。绝大多数平凡的领袖不为人所知。战争中的英雄领导角色导致对命令和控制以及强势军事力量的过分强调。在今天的美国,总统选举辩论是在曾是战争英雄的参议员约翰·麦凯恩和曾是社团组织者的参议员巴拉克·奥巴马之间进行。

        在现代,战斗领袖的形象仍然得以保留。作家罗伯特·卡普兰(Robert Kaplan)指出,出现了一个新的“和前人一样残酷而拥有更好的武器装备的战斗阶层”,这个阶层包括俄罗斯黑手党,拉丁美洲毒枭以及像古希腊人在特洛伊屠城中那样美化暴力的恐怖分子。卡普兰认为现代的领袖们必须用同样的方式对这些人进行回应,现代领导人要求具有源自过去的异教道德精神。

        但是,聪明的战士知道怎样用仅仅使用武力之外的东西进行领导。士兵们有时候开玩笑说他们的工作描述很简单:“杀人和破坏东西”。但是,像美国在伊拉克发现的那样,感情和头脑也很重要,聪明的战士需要强迫的硬力量,也需要吸引人的软力量。

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