Tim Brinton

Les deux lapins du commerce international

SEOUL – Selon le vieux dicton, si vous essayez de chasser deux lapins à la fois, vous n’en attraperez aucun. Et pourtant, c'est précisément ce que de nombreux gouvernements doivent faire : poursuivre à la fois la croissance et une répartition équitable. Les deux objectifs, sans être incompatibles, sont complétement différents et peu d’outils politiques permettent d’atteindre les deux simultanément.

Cette idée a de nombreuses implications pour la politique commerciale. Un grand nombre de recherches théoriques et empiriques montrent que l’ouverture commerciale peut stimuler la croissance du PIB d'un pays. Mais l'augmentation de la taille d'une tarte ne garantit pas qu'elle sera partagée équitablement.

Souvent, le supplément de croissance obtenu grâce à une ouverture commerciale est inégalement partagé ; en outre, dans de nombreux cas, certains reçoivent une part moins importante qu'auparavant. C'est là que le gouvernement doit intervenir en utilisant ses outils traditionnels, la fiscalité et la redistribution, ainsi que des politiques complémentaires comme les filets de sécurité sociale et l’aide à l'ajustement.

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