Le véritable accord de Lima

LIMA – Ce fut l’accord souhaité par tout le monde, mais mal aimé de tous. La Conférence sur les changements climatiques, qui s’est tenue cette année à Lima au Pérou, s’est conclue dimanche, aux petites heures de l’aube, plus de 24 heures en retard sur l’heure de clôture prévue, à la suite des pourparlers agités des derniers jours. Des négociateurs de 196 pays ont rapiécé un compromis qui dirige la planète vers un nouvel accord de lutte aux changements climatiques à Paris, l’an prochain ; mais qui a fini par déplaire à presque tout le monde en raison de telle ou telle clause.

Peu de critiques de l’accord en ont saisi toute l’importance. Sur plusieurs aspects, l’accord de Lima présente des faiblesses. Mais il représente aussi une percée fondamentale pour établir un régime international cohérent de lutte contre les changements climatiques.

La Conférence de Lima visait deux objectifs. Le premier était d’adopter une ébauche du texte de l’accord de Paris en 2015. Cet objectif a été atteint – mais uniquement en pondant un imposant rapport de 37 pages décrivant l’éventail des possibilités que les pays pourraient vouloir intégrer à l’accord de l’an prochain. Les délégués n’ont pas tenté de négocier les différentes options, suivant religieusement le vieil adage « Pourquoi faire aujourd’hui, ce que l’on peut remettre à demain ? »

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