刚果黑暗里的曙光?

纽约——也许地球上没有其他任何国家——甚至连伊拉克,阿富汗或苏丹——在过去15年所遭受的、因武装冲突而引起的苦难能超过刚果民主共和国(DRC)。已经有数以百万计的人口不是直接死于武装冲突,就是因被迫流离失所和随之而来的健康问题而丧命。

刚果民主共和国长久以来战乱频繁,这主要是因为各方在争夺对这个贫穷国家里大量自然资源的控制权。还有一个重要原因是邻国卢旺达试图剿灭1994年种族屠杀的作恶者, 这些人躲在刚果民主共和国境内避难,被卢旺达视为潜在的威胁。一些非洲的其他国家:安哥拉,纳米比亚,乌干达和津巴布韦有时候也会卷入刚果民主共和国境内的武装冲突,不是以直接的方式,就是透过所支持的游击队。即使在这个国家已经恢复和平的某些地方,苦难也还在以性暴力的形式继续出现。这种性暴力席卷了整个国家,作恶者则是过去的军队。

在这种暗淡无光的情况下,最近出现的一种进展倒是提供了一线希望的微光:刚果的民间组织为了保护刚果民主共和国新生的民主机构而展开特别动员。最少有210个刚果的非政府组织,包括那些在全国最受承认和尊敬的组织,最近加入了挑战总统约瑟夫·卡比拉的行列­——因为卡比拉试图控制在2006年历史性的选举之后上台的国民议会(即议会的下院)。

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