Jak prolomit prokletí přírodních zdrojů

Země bohatě obdařené přírodními zdroji jsou často chudé, neboť využívání těchto zdrojů převážilo nad řádnou správou státu. Soupeřící ropné a důlní společnosti, podporované svými vládami, jsou často ochotné jednat s kýmkoli, kdo jim dokáže zajistit koncesi. To se stalo živnou půdou zkorumpovaných a represivních vlád a ozbrojených střetů. Přírodním bohatstvím obdařené země Afriky, například Kongo, Angolu a Súdán, zpustošily občanské války. Demokratický rozvoj na Středním východě pokulhává.

Zbavit se tohoto „prokletí přírodních zdrojů“ by mohlo značně přispět ke zmírnění chudoby a bídy na světě. Právě o to usiluje mezinárodní hnutí, které se dalo do pohybu. Prvním krokem je transparentnost, druhým zodpovědnost.

Hnutí se objevilo před několika lety, když vznikla kampaň „Zveřejněte, co platíte“ (Publish What You Pay), která naléhá na ropné a těžební společnosti, aby odtajnily platby na účty vlád. Britská vláda následně zahájila Iniciativu za transparentnost v těžebním průmyslu (EITI). Dnes, po téměř třech letech, Velká Británie svolává v Londýně významnou konferenci EITI, jíž se mají zúčastnit zástupci vlád, obchodních společností i občanské společnosti.

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