解除资源魔咒

自然资源丰富的国家往往贫穷,因为人们在开发利用资源的同时往往忽略了政府的建设。石油公司、采矿公司都有政府在后撑腰,互相竞争,往往是谁能保证批给他们特许权,他们就心甘情愿地与之斡旋。于是腐败便由此滋生,专制政府、武装冲突也由此兴起。在非洲,资源丰富的国家如刚果,安哥拉、苏丹便因为内战不断而凋零衰败。在中东,民主进程也一直停滞不前。

解除这种“资源魔咒”可以为缓解世界贫困,减轻全球苦难做出巨大贡献。现在正有一项国际运动致力于此。第一步便是透明,第二步就是问责。

运动始于几年前的“付款公布”活动(Publish What You Pay )。该活动督促石油公司、采矿公司公开给政府的付款。作为回应,英国政府发起了“采掘行业透明度行动计划”(EITI)。在此行动计划运行了3年的今天,英国将在伦敦召集一次重要的EITI大会,政府部门、工商界和民间团体都将派代表参加。

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