A vida depois de Darwin

MARSELHA - Muitos filósofos gregos perceberam que o mundo estaria num movimento perpétuo - um processo de constante evolução. No mundo de Charles Darwin, no entanto, o criacionismo estabeleceu as regras da ciência. Sendo assim, sustentar a sua teoria da evolução sob a interpretação literal da Bíblia que dominou a sua época, combinava com a visão Aristotélica da natureza como definitivamente fixada.

Darwin, juntamente com J. B. Lamarck, promoveu uma visão de um mundo em mutação, sem deixar de preservar a ideia de que organismos evoluíram de uma só raiz - uma posição detida por Adão e Eva na visão criacionista do mundo e retomada na era moderna pelo último ancestral comum universal (LUCA). E a partir dessa parte da história bíblica sobre a criação surgiu a noção de uma árvore da vida, juntamente com grandes conceitos, tais como o gradualismo (a visão dessa especiação não ocorre abruptamente) e a ideia de que as pressões de selecção de menor importância podem, ao longo do tempo, ter um profundo efeito na condição física melhorada.

A visão do mundo de Darwin influenciou profundamente a biologia no século XX, apesar das persistentes questões colocadas por factores como a transferência lateral dos genes, a evolução neutra e o engarrafamento caótico na selecção natural. Mas recentes pesquisas genéticas refutam inequivocamente esta visão do mundo.

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