达尔文之后的生命

发自马赛——许多希腊哲学家认为世界处于永恒的运动之中——也就是一个不断进化的过程。但在查尔斯·达尔文的世界里,为科学设定规则的则是上帝创世论(creationism)。因此进化论的支柱其实就是对主宰他那个时代的《圣经》的直接转译,再与亚里士多德认为自然是绝对稳定的观点结合在一起。

达尔文与法国博物学家J.B.拉马克一道,一方面宣扬世界处于不断变化状态的观点,同时也坚信生物是由一个单一的根源进化而来——也就是创世论者世界观中亚当和夏娃所处的位置,并由当代的物种共同祖先(Last Universal Common Ancestor,LUCA)理论继承了下来。他们的理论包含了圣经造物故事中催生生命树这一概念的零散篇章,加上类似渐变论(gradualism,认为物种并非突然形成)这样的主要概念,还有微小的选择压力可以——随着时间推移——对物种的改良产生深刻影响的理论。

而尽管遭到自然选择中横向基因转移,中性进化和混乱进化瓶颈等因素的不断质疑,达尔文的世界观依然深刻影响了20世纪的生物学。但近来的基因研究却明白无误的驳斥了他的观点。

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