libya conflict Mahmud Turkia/AFP/Getty Images

Le revirement de Trump dont le monde a besoin

MADRID – Six ans après la chute du colonel Mouammar Kadhafi, la Libye demeure embourbée dans le conflit et en proie au chaos politique. Dépourvue de toute autorité centrale comme de structure nationale de sécurité, l’État libyen n’existe plus que par son nom. Il est temps d’envisager une nouvelle approche – dont les États-Unis devraient être partie prenante.

Il y a certes en Libye un gouvernement reconnu par la communauté internationale : le gouvernement d’« union nationale », siégeant à Tripoli, né en décembre 2015 de l’accord politique signé à Skhirat, au Maroc, sous les auspices des Nations unies. Mais le Parlement siégeant à Tobrouk a refusé, en août dernier, d’investir ce gouvernement, et il est en outre ouvertement défié par un autre organe, le Congrès général national, largement dominé par les groupes islamistes, qui siège lui aussi à Tripoli.

À la vérité, la Libye est aujourd’hui dirigée par une myriade de clans criminels mafieux et par leurs milices armées, dont les allégeances se répartissent entre les deux gouvernements rivaux, Al-Qaida et l’État islamique (EI), ce dernier considérant le pays comme une province de son califat, dont l’existence est de plus en plus précaire, et comme un refuge essentiel à ses membres, qui tentent de fuir la guerre en Syrie et en Irak. Des milliers de migrants, par vagues incontrôlées, quittent la Libye pour rejoindre l’Europe, sur l’autre rive de la Méditerranée.

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