L’ombre de la Libye sur les fonds souverains

NEW YORK - Alors que les citoyens de libyens reconstruisent leur vie et leur économie, le démantèlement de la corruption dans la Libyan Investment Authority (LIA), le fonds souverain dans lequel le régime de Mouammar el-Kadhafi aurait caché et abusé de la richesse pétrolière de la Libye, est devenu une priorité. Le Conseil National de Transition débat en ce moment sur l’instance qui doit prendre le relais de la Banque centrale de Libye et des actifs de la LIA - une décision particulièrement importante, étant donné que la production de pétrole ne devrait pas revenir à ses niveaux d'avant-guerre avant plusieurs années.

Indépendamment de la façon dont le gouvernement libyen dirigera finalement la LIA, tous les fonds souverains - ainsi que leurs conseillers et leurs collecteurs de fonds - peuvent en tirer plusieurs leçons importantes. Bien sûr, on ne doit en aucun cas déduire du cas libyen que les autres fonds souverains riment en général avec la gangrène de la corruption et les conflits d'intérêt. La LIA a toujours été une exception : en effet, plusieurs indices de classement des fonds souverains sur la transparence, la responsabilisation et les questions de gouvernance n’ont traditionnellement classé que l'Iran à un rang inférieur à la Libye.

Pourtant, alors que les dossiers difficiles ont tendance à faire de mauvaises lois et qu’il est trop tôt pour juger, la LIA doit servir de signal d’alarme pour les sociétés et les fonds à la fois au Moyen-Orient et dans le monde entier.

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