自由的革命性缪斯

伟大的社会思想家开始之初几乎总是一些引发争议的人物。某些人崇拜他们,某些人挖苦他们,直到他们对我们理解世界的方式提出的激进挑战最后赢得胜利。至少有两个原因使得弗里德曼成为现代社会思想家中的巨人。首先,他不仅深刻地影响了他自身的经济学领域,而且也更为广泛地影响了社会科学。第二,根据历史经验来判断,他对舆论和经济政策制定改善了难以计数的人的生活。

几十年来,弗里德曼在知识荒野中流落,拒绝接受二战后凯恩斯主义的共识,即政府应当运用财政政策来管理总需求,这一观点在整个七十年代支撑了国家干预的经济政策。确实,在其年龄背景下,弗里德曼是一位真正的知识界革命性人物。他结合了严谨的学术研究、文笔优雅的畅销书籍和新闻学笔调来呼吁自由市场政策,并且肯定经济自由以及政治自由之间的联系。从亚当∙斯密到哈耶克的大师也都为这一联系辩护。

在经济学中,弗里德曼重新恢复了货币主义者的理论并予以发扬光大。这一理论认为流通中的货币数量是各经济体表现的主要决定因素。在其与施瓦茨合著的杰作<<1867年至1960年的美国货币历史>>中,他将包括三十年代大萧条的经济衰退归结于货币供应的下降,从而声名远扬。同时,他认为,是货币供应过量造成了通货膨胀。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/SjMvY9x/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now