Una nueva revolución industrial más ecológica

VIENA – La industria fabril plantea un dilema a la sociedad: su pujanza colabora con el crecimiento de la economía y eleva así el nivel de vida de la población (una meta que para los países en desarrollo es especialmente importante). Pero en su intento de satisfacer la demanda incesante de los consumidores, las fábricas agotan los recursos naturales del mundo y contaminan el medio ambiente. Hay quienes piensan que hoy estamos obligados a elegir entre más prosperidad o más sostenibidad y pureza medioambiental. Pero lo cierto es que las nuevas tecnologías y un nuevo modo de pensar pueden ayudarnos a encontrar un equilibrio duradero entre estos intereses en conflicto.

En los países desarrollados, los consumidores son cada vez más conscientes de que aunque su bienestar material sea mayor que nunca, dañar el medio ambiente es perjudicial para la calidad de vida. Pero para los países pobres estas preocupaciones son lujos que sólo los ricos pueden darse: los países en desarrollo ven en el crecimiento industrial el mejor modo de erradicar la pobreza, un objetivo que sin duda prevalece sobre las inquietudes ecologistas.

Sean los países pobres o ricos, ningún gobierno puede desentenderse del imperativo de estimular el crecimiento económico. El sector fabril crea empleos, suministra productos accesibles a consumidores con restricciones de efectivo, genera impuestos esenciales para el sostenimiento de los programas sociales y aporta divisas por medio de las exportaciones. En síntesis, un sector fabril bien gestionado esparce riqueza a toda la sociedad.

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