Que la Historia juzgue a las revoluciones rusas

Se acerca una plétora de aniversarios en Rusia. Este mes se cumple el 90º aniversario de la Revolución de octubre de 1917 y el 25º aniversario de la muerte de Leonid Brezhnev. El mes próximo, llegará el 15º aniversario de la desintegración de la Unión Soviética. Sin embargo, sólo entendiendo el primero de esos acontecimientos podemos comprender los demás.

La Revolución de Octubre siempre ha tenido muchos críticos. El filósofo ruso Ivan Shmelev la llamó "la gran derrota de Rusia". Vasily Rozanov la llamó "la matanza de Rusia". Innumerables autores la consideran una tragedia que alteró el curso de la Historia y destruyó a las personas más valiosas de Rusia.

Pero también tiene sus apologistas, para quienes señaló el comienzo de una nueva era en la Historia, un avance hacia la libertad a partir de un mundo de esclavitud y opresión, una salvación para Rusia y Europa y un motivo de esperanza para Asia y África. Según esa opinión, no hubo conspiración, sino una gran revolución social que, en virtud de una poderosa lógica interna, llevó al poder a los trabajadores, los campesinos y el partido bolchevique, que representaba la voluntad de aquéllos.

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