Lasst die Geschichte über Russlands Revolutionen urteilen

In Russland stehen derzeit eine Vielzahl von Jahrestagen an. So jährt sich diesen Monat die Oktoberrevolution von 1917 zum 90. und der Tod Leonid Breschnews zum 25. Mal. Im nächsten Monat erleben wir dann den 15. Jahrestag des Auseinanderbrechens der Sowjetunion. Doch nur, wenn wir das Erste dieser Ereignisse begreifen, können wir auch die übrigen verstehen.

Die Oktoberrevolution hatte schon immer viele Kritiker. Der russische Philosoph Iwan Schmeljow bezeichnete sie als „die große Züchtigung Russlands“. Wassilij Rosanov nannte sie „das Massaker an Russland“. Zahllose Autoren betrachten sie als Tragödie, die den Fluss der Geschichte unterbrach und Russlands Beste vernichtete.

Doch hat die Oktoberrevolution auch ihre Apologeten, für welche sie den Beginn eines neuen historischen Zeitalters markierte: einen Durchbruch von einer Welt der Sklaverei und Unterdrückung hin zur Freiheit, eine Rettung Russlands und Europas und eine Quelle der Hoffnung für Asien und Afrika. Dieser Sichtweise zufolge gab es keine Verschwörung, sondern eine große gesellschaftliche Revolution, die kraft ihrer machtvollen inneren Logik Arbeiter, Bauern und die ihren Willen verkörpernde bolschewistische Partei an die Macht brachte.

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