Laissons l’histoire juger des révolutions russes

La Russie se prépare à une pléthore de commémorations. Ce mois-ci marque le 90e anniversaire de la Révolution d’octobre 1917 et le 25e de la mort de Léonid Brejnev, puis le mois prochain, le 15e anniversaire de la désagrégation de l’Union soviétique. Il importe de comprendre ce premier événement pour comprendre tous les autres.

La Révolution d’octobre a toujours été vivement critiquée. Le philosophe russe Ivan Chmelev l’a qualifiée de « grande défaite de la Russie » et Vassili Rozanov de « massacre de la Russie ». D’innombrables auteurs la considère comme une tragédie qui a brisé le cours de l’histoire et détruit les acteurs les plus précieux de l’histoire russe.

Néanmoins, la Révolution d’octobre a aussi ses défenseurs, pour lesquels elle a marqué le début d’une nouvelle ère de l’histoire, une avancée énorme pour se libérer d’un monde d’esclavage et d’oppression, un salut pour la Russie tout autant que pour l’Europe, et une source d’espoir pour l’Asie et l’Afrique. De ce point de vue, il n’y a pas eu de conspiration, mais une grande révolution sociale qui, en raison d’une logique interne puissante, a amené au pouvoir les ouvriers, les paysans et le parti Bolchevik, qui représentait leur volonté.

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