Die freie Presse möge erblühen

Immer wenn ich Menschen aus dem Westen erzähle, wie ich meinen Lebensunterhalt verdiene, ist deren Reaktion von Zweifeln geprägt. ,,Gibt es denn in China überhaupt so etwas wie eine freie Presse und unabhängige Journalisten?", werde ich gefragt. Die Antwort lautet: Ja und nein.

Seit Deng Xiaoping im Jahr 1978 seine Reformen einleitete, befindet sich China auf dem Weg von der staatlich gelenkten Planwirtschaft zur freien Marktwirtschaft. Auch die Medien befinden sich in einer unsicheren Phase des Umbruchs, denn der Staat, der zwar wirtschaftliche Reformen mit Nachdruck unterstützt, ist sich noch nicht sicher, inwieweit man Reformen der Medien tolerieren möchte.

Dennoch ist die Haltung der Regierung gegenüber der Presse nicht von unüberwindbarem Argwohn geprägt. Nachdem man (mit Verspätung) die Bedeutung transparenter Kapitalmärkte erkannte, gewährte man auch Journalisten größere Freiheit in der investigativen Berichterstattung. Die Grenze zwischen dem Erlaubten und dem Verbotenen existiert zwar noch immer, aber sie hat sich verlagert. Einige Journalisten arbeiten sehr dicht an dieser Grenze und dehnen sie auch zuweilen, aber sie zu überschreiten, ist eine andere Sache.

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