Chris Van Es

Nechť vzkvétá hojnost teorií

BUDAPEŠŤ – Hospodářská a finanční krize je pro ekonomickou profesi výmluvným okamžikem, neboť mnoho dlouholetých idejí podrobuje zatěžkávací zkoušce. Jestliže vědu vymezuje schopnost předpovědět budoucnost, nezdar valné části ekonomické obce povšimnout si nadcházející krize, by měl vyvolávat značné znepokojení.

Mezi ekonomy ale ve skutečnosti existuje mnohem větší myšlenková rozmanitost, než si lidé často uvědomují. Letošními laureáty Nobelovy ceny za ekonomii jsou dva akademici, jejichž životní dílo se věnovalo alternativním přístupům. Ekonomie vytvořila bohatství myšlenek, z nichž mnohé tvrdí, že trhy nejsou nutně ani efektivní, ani stabilní nebo že modely konkurenční rovnováhy, používané většinou ekonomů, nejsou dobrým popisem hospodářství ani společnosti.

Behaviorální ekonomie například zdůrazňuje, že účastníci trhů často jednají způsoby, které se nijak snadno neslučují s racionalitou. Moderní ekonomie informací zase dokládá, že i když jsou trhy soutěživé, nejsou téměř nikdy efektivní, jsou-li informace nedokonalé či asymetrické (někteří lidé vědí něco, co ostatní nevědí, jako třeba při nedávném finančním debaklu) – tedy vždy .

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