Une nouvelle stratégie pour lutter contre le changement climatique

NEW YORK – De toutes les principales régions du monde, l’Europe est celle qui a travaillé le plus dur pour mettre en œuvre des politiques visant à combattre le changement climatique lié à l’activité humaine. Et pourtant, la pierre angulaire de l’approche européenne – le système communautaire d’échange de quotas d’émission des gaz à effet de serre à l’origine du changement climatique – est en difficulté. Cette expérience invite à penser à une meilleure stratégie, à la fois pour l’Europe et pour le reste du monde.

L’histoire du changement climatique induit par l’homme commence à être mieux connue du grand public. Plusieurs gaz, dont le dioxyde de carbone, le méthane et le protoxyde d'azote, réchauffent la planète au fur et à mesure qu’ils se concentrent dans l’atmosphère. L’émission de ces gaz croit parallèlement à la croissance de l’économie mondiale, accélérant le rythme du changement climatique.

Le principal gaz à effet de serre est le dioxyde de carbone (CO2). La plupart des émissions de CO2 résultent de la combustion des combustibles fossiles – charbon, pétrole et gaz naturel – pour produire de l’énergie, dont la consommation mondiale ne cesse d’augmenter pour suppléer aux demandes de la croissance économique mondiale. Nous sommes en conséquence sur le point d’atteindre des concentrations dangereusement élevées de CO2 dans l’atmosphère.

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