Детройтский синдром

СИНГАПУР – Когда на прошлой неделе администрация Детройта подала заявление о банкротстве, это стало крупнейшей подобной заявкой в истории США. Население Детройта сократилось с 1,8 млн человек в 1950 году, когда он был пятым по величине городом Америки, менее чем до 700 000 человек сегодня. Его производственная база разрушена.

И все же мы живем в мире, в котором городам никогда прежде не было так хорошо. Более половины мирового населения проживает в городах, что является рекордом за всю историю, и городские центры производят около 80% мирового ВВП. Данные проценты станут еще более высокими по мере стремительной урбанизации стран с формирующейся рыночной экономикой. Итак, чему может научиться мир на печальном опыте Детройта?

Совсем недавно, в 1990-х годах, многие эксперты делали предположения о том, что из-за развития технологий города утратят свое значение. Считалось, что благодаря Интернету и мобильной связи, в то время являвшимся слаборазвитыми технологиями, людям станет ненужно жить в перенаселенных и дорогих городских центрах. Вместо этого в таких городах, как Нью-Йорк и Лондон с 1990 года наблюдается резкий рост численности населения, начавшийся спустя десятилетия упадка.

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