Detroitský syndrom

SINGAPUR – Když město Detroit požádalo minulý týden o ochranu přes věřiteli, jednalo se o největší podobný právní akt v dějinách Spojených států. Počet obyvatel Detroitu klesl z 1,8 milionu v roce 1950, kdy to bylo páté největší americké město, na dnešních necelých 700 000. Jeho průmyslová základna leží v troskách.

A přesto žijeme ve světě, kde na tom města nikdy nebyla tak dobře jako dnes. Poprvé v dějinách žije ve městech více než polovina světové populace a městské aglomerace generují odhadem 80% globálního HDP. Tyto poměry se s rychlou urbanizací v zemích s rozvíjejícími se trhy ještě zvýší. Jaké ponaučení si tedy svět může vzít z detroitské šlamastyky?

Ještě v 90. letech řada expertů naznačovala, že s vývojem nových technologií ztratí velká města na významu. Věřilo se, že díky internetu a mobilním komunikacím, kteréžto technologie byly tehdy v plenkách, nebude nadále nutné, aby lidé bydleli v přelidněných a drahých městských aglomeracích. Místo toho zaznamenala města jako New York a Londýn po roce 1990 prudký růst počtu obyvatel, přestože do té doby jejich počet obyvatel desítky let klesal.

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